Essay on Foreign Policy of India

Students are often asked to write an essay on Foreign Policy of India in their schools and colleges. And if you’re also looking for the same, we have created 100-word, 250-word, and 500-word essays on the topic.

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100 Words Essay on Foreign Policy of India


India’s foreign policy is a set of guidelines that shape its interactions with other nations. Since independence, the policy has evolved, focusing on peace and cooperation.

Non-Alignment Movement

India played a key role in the Non-Alignment Movement during the Cold War. It maintained a neutral stance, not siding with any major power bloc.

Look East Policy

India’s Look East policy aimed at strengthening ties with Southeast Asian nations. It was a strategic move for economic and security benefits.

Neighbourhood First Policy

The Neighbourhood First Policy prioritizes relations with neighboring countries. It aims to promote regional unity and foster economic growth.


India’s foreign policy reflects its commitment to peace, regional cooperation, and economic development. It continues to adapt to global changes.

250 Words Essay on Foreign Policy of India


India’s foreign policy is a complex interplay of its historical legacy, geographical realities, economic ambitions, and political ideologies. It is a tool through which India interacts with the world, safeguarding its national interests while promoting global peace and cooperation.

Historical Evolution

India’s foreign policy has evolved since its independence in 1947. Initially, it was based on the principles of Non-Alignment, Panchsheel, and world peace. The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) was a significant component, allowing India to maintain strategic autonomy without aligning with any major power blocs during the Cold War.

Contemporary Foreign Policy

In the contemporary era, India’s foreign policy has become more pragmatic and dynamic. It has been influenced by the changing global order, India’s rising economic power, and its aspirations to be a global player. The Look East Policy, now Act East Policy, signifies India’s efforts to strengthen relationships with Southeast Asian and East Asian countries.

Challenges and Opportunities

However, India’s foreign policy faces challenges like managing relations with its immediate neighbors, especially Pakistan and China. The issue of terrorism and border disputes are significant concerns. On the other hand, opportunities lie in its strategic partnerships with major powers like the USA, Russia, and European Union, and its role in international organizations like the United Nations and BRICS.


In conclusion, the foreign policy of India is a delicate balance of diplomacy, strategic alliances, and economic partnerships. It is a reflection of India’s aspirations to safeguard its interests, ensure its security, and play a significant role in global affairs. It is a dynamic policy that evolves with changing global scenarios.

500 Words Essay on Foreign Policy of India


India’s foreign policy, since its independence in 1947, has been shaped by a variety of factors including its historical legacy, geographical location, economic potential, and national security concerns. The policy is based on the principles of peaceful coexistence, non-alignment, Panchsheel (Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence), and the pursuit of international peace and security.

Historical Evolution

The initial phase of India’s foreign policy was characterized by non-alignment, where India maintained an independent stance and refrained from joining any of the power blocs during the Cold War period. The policy of non-alignment was not about passivity or neutrality, but rather an active engagement with all countries on an equal footing. This policy allowed India to establish relations with both Western and Eastern blocs.

Economic Considerations

With the liberalization of the Indian economy in 1991, economic considerations started playing a more significant role in shaping India’s foreign policy. The ‘Look East’ policy initiated in the 1990s was a reflection of this change, aimed at fostering extensive economic and strategic relations with the nations of Southeast Asia to bolster its standing as a regional power.

Security Concerns

India’s foreign policy is significantly influenced by its security concerns, primarily arising from issues related to territorial disputes and cross-border terrorism. India has been actively seeking to strengthen its strategic ties with countries around the world to address these concerns. The ‘Neighborhood First’ policy is an example of this, focusing on improving relations with neighboring countries to ensure regional peace and stability.

Global Governance and Multilateralism

India has been a strong advocate of multilateralism and global governance. It has been actively participating in various international organizations like the United Nations, World Bank, and International Monetary Fund. India’s push for reforms in these institutions to reflect the contemporary realities of the global order is a significant aspect of its foreign policy.


In conclusion, India’s foreign policy is a dynamic and evolving construct, shaped by a complex interplay of historical, economic, and security factors. As India continues to grow economically and strategically, its foreign policy is expected to evolve further, reflecting its aspirations to play a more significant role in global affairs. Despite the changes, the core principles of non-alignment, peaceful coexistence, and commitment to international peace and security continue to guide India’s foreign policy.

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