Essay on Indian Freedom Struggle

Students are often asked to write an essay on Indian Freedom Struggle in their schools and colleges. And if you’re also looking for the same, we have created 100-word, 250-word, and 500-word essays on the topic.

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100 Words Essay on Indian Freedom Struggle

The Birth of Struggle

The Indian Freedom Struggle began in 1857 with the Sepoy Mutiny. Indian soldiers, called sepoys, rebelled against the British East India Company. This uprising marked the start of a widespread struggle for independence.

Formation of Congress

In 1885, the Indian National Congress was formed. It became a major force in the freedom movement, pushing for political rights and self-governance. Leaders like Gopal Krishna Gokhale began demanding more freedom.

Role of Mahatma Gandhi

Mahatma Gandhi’s arrival in 1915 significantly boosted the struggle. His philosophy of non-violence and civil disobedience inspired millions. His movements like the Salt March deeply impacted the freedom struggle.

India’s Independence

After World War II, Britain was weakened and pressure for India’s independence grew. On August 15, 1947, India finally achieved independence, marking the end of a long and courageous struggle.

250 Words Essay on Indian Freedom Struggle

The Genesis of the Struggle

The Indian freedom struggle, a historical marvel, marked a significant epoch in the annals of Indian history. It commenced with the advent of the British East India Company in 1600, which gradually established its stronghold through the policy of “Divide and Rule”.

The Revolt of 1857

The Revolt of 1857, often dubbed as the First War of Independence, was the first large-scale mutiny against the British rule. Although it was suppressed, it sowed the seeds of nationalism among Indians.

The Rise of Nationalism

In the late 19th century, the Indian National Congress (INC) was established, marking the beginning of organized movements. The period saw the rise of eminent leaders like Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, who advocated for “Swaraj” or self-rule.

The Gandhian Era

The early 20th century witnessed the arrival of Mahatma Gandhi who introduced novel methods of non-violent resistance or Satyagraha. The Dandi March and Quit India Movement under his leadership galvanized the masses towards the freedom struggle.

The Final Phase

Post World War II, the British were economically weakened and international pressure mounted on them. The Indian National Army led by Subhas Chandra Bose and the Naval Mutiny of 1946 further intensified the struggle.

Independence and Partition

Finally, on August 15, 1947, India gained its independence, albeit with the painful partition into India and Pakistan. The struggle thus ended, leaving behind a legacy of resilience and unity.

The Indian freedom struggle is a testament to the indomitable spirit of the Indians who fought relentlessly against the British oppression, paving the way for the establishment of the world’s largest democracy.

500 Words Essay on Indian Freedom Struggle

The Genesis of the Indian Freedom Struggle

The Indian Freedom Struggle is a testament to the indomitable spirit of a nation that rose against colonial rule. The struggle began in the late 19th century, following a period of passive resistance against the British Raj. The seeds of discontent were sown by the exploitative policies of the British, which led to widespread economic, social, and political unrest.

The Revolt of 1857

Often referred to as India’s First War of Independence, the Revolt of 1857 marked the first large-scale uprising against British rule. The revolt, although unsuccessful, served as a significant milestone in the freedom struggle, highlighting the unity of Indians across diverse backgrounds.

Emergence of Nationalist Movements

The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw the emergence of several nationalist movements. The Indian National Congress, founded in 1885, played a pivotal role in mobilizing public opinion against colonial rule. The moderates initially sought constitutional reforms, while the extremists advocated for complete independence.

Role of Mahatma Gandhi

Mahatma Gandhi’s arrival on the political scene in 1915 marked a paradigm shift in the freedom struggle. His philosophy of Satyagraha (truth and firmness) and Ahimsa (non-violence) galvanized the masses. The non-cooperation movement (1920-22), Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-34), and Quit India Movement (1942) under his leadership brought the freedom struggle to its zenith.

Revolutionary Movements and World Wars

Parallel to the non-violent struggle, revolutionary movements also flourished. The Ghadar Movement, activities of revolutionaries like Bhagat Singh, and the formation of the Indian National Army by Subhash Chandra Bose presented a direct challenge to British authority. The two World Wars further weakened the British hold on India, hastening the process of decolonization.

Partition and Independence

The demand for a separate Muslim state led to the unfortunate partition of India in 1947. Despite the communal violence and displacement, the long-awaited dawn of independence arrived on August 15, 1947. The joy of freedom was, however, tinged with the sorrow of partition.


The Indian Freedom Struggle is a saga of sacrifice, unity, and resilience. It is a compelling narrative of a nation’s journey from subjugation to sovereignty. The struggle was not just for political freedom, but also for social justice, economic self-sufficiency, and cultural revival. It serves as a constant reminder of our past and a beacon for our future endeavors.

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